Diplomacy A-Z, Version 6.0

B Entries

BACKSTABBER, The(1) [PW:Aug92]
The first real Norwegian Diplomacy fanzine. Edited by Borger Borgersen who run several games by flyer before starting _Backstabber_. The first fanzine from Norway was _Bohemian Rapsody_ which Malcom Smith brought from UK and Belgium, but this was published in English and more directed towards the crowds 'at home'. Started out as a warehouse zine but have quite a letter column nowadays as well as Borger's articles 'How to win as...'. Together with _Ad Arma_ (edited by Tron Erling Nerbo) constitutes the Norwegian hobby. See Zine Names (KW).
BALKAN GAMBIT (1.0) [MB/RE/MN:Jun80/89-90/Jan92]
Richard Sharp's name for the family of openings F(Tri)-Alb, A(Bud)-Ser. The name explains it all: a 'Gambit' is a move that risks loss in one area for a hopefully better chance of a gain elsewhere; Austria is giving up much of his ability to defend his home centres against Italy (and, to a lesser extent, giving up some Austrian influence in Rum) in exchange for the virtual assurance of gaining both Greece and Serbia. It is generally regarded as anti-Turkish.

There are several variations of which the Trieste, Budapest and Galicia versions traditionally account for a significant proportion of Austrian opening moves - Balkan Gambits are widely regarded as the only 'sensible' alternative to the 'Southern Hedgehog'.

In the 1960's the Budapest variation (A(Vie)-Bud) was popular, an attempt to take three centres. In the early 1970's Italy often opened A(Ven)-Tri and the Budapest variation lost favour with the Trieste variation gaining in popularity (A(Vie)-Tri). In the 1980's Italy has moved towards opening A(Ven)-Tyr, A(Rom)-Ven. Accordingly some Austrian players have used the rare Tyrolian variant A(Vie)-Tyr which, if Russia is friendly, gives Austria a strong position provided Italy has opened to Tyr and not Tri... Postal play has, on occasion, seen the Bohemian variant but this has nothing to commend it to Austrian players; even if England/France/Italy Russia have all agreed to attack Germany... Finally in the early 1970's the A(Vie)H option attracted support from Don Turnbull, this opening has not (to my (MN) knowledge) been played in a British postal game. See Austrian Openings (KW).

Richard Sharp's name for the opening F(Tri)-Alb, A(Bud)-Ser, A(Vie)-Boh. Also known as Fisher's Folly. See Austrian Openings (KW).
The Balkan Gambit with A(Vie)-Bud. Austria thus takes no defensive measures against Italy or Russia. In return, he has two pieces adjacent to Rum. He can also accept Russian support into Bul and still have A(Bud)-Ser. See Ionian Gauntlet and Key Opening. See Austrian Openings (KW).
The Balkan Gambit with A(Vie)-Gal. When it succeeds, you have two units on Rum, plus the threat to War which may well distract A(Ukr) away from Rum ---but risks Tri. If it fails, you have shielded two home centres from attack, and are in a decent position to limit further mischief from any Italian A(Tri). See Austrian Openings (KW).
The Balkan Gambit with A(Vie)-Tri, designed to defend against Italy. The paradox is that an Italian attack is more likely to begin with A(Ven)-Tyr rather than A(Ven)-Tri. If there is a A(Tyr), A(Ven) you can still force Italy to guess (Vie or supported attack on Tri), being able to divert A(Ser) to defend Tri. This is the single most popular Austrian opening. See Austrian Openings (KW).
Richard Sharp's name for the opening: F(Tri)-Alb, A(Bud)-Ser, A (Vie)-Tyr. Useful if you suspect that Italy will open with the Tyrolian attack and if you can trust Russia. See Austrian Openings (KW).
The opening: F(Tri)-Alb, A(Bud)-Ser, A(Vie)H. Named using the Richard Sharp nomenclature for Austrian Openings. See Austrian Openings (KW).
Richard Sharp's name for the opening: F(Tri)-Alb, A(Bud)-Ser, A(Vie) SIA(Ven)-Tyr. That this opening has been named means that someone has used it... See Austrian Openings (KW).
A German attack starting in Scandinavia rather than in the Polish corridor: F(Kie)-BAL-Swe, A(Ber)-Kie-Den, A(Mun)-Ruh-Hol/Bel. If Sweden is taken, BAL can be retaken via F(Swe) SF(Kie)-BAL, followed by F(BAL) CA(Den)-Lvn! If not, F(BAL) SA(Den)-Swe, plus, new armies enter Polish corridor. Requires solid knowledge of English, French (and Italian) intentions. See German Openings (KW).
BARBAROSSA (1) [MB/MN:Jun80/Aug95]
A(Mun)-Sil, F(Kie)-Den, A(Ber)-Pru is Germany's most aggressive opening towards the east. Note that both Hol and Bel are ignored, virtually asking for A(Yor)-Hol. Named by Richard Sharp. There are three variations: the Danish variant (F(Kie)-Den), the Dutch variant (F(Kie)-Hol) and the Barbarossa Proper (F(Kie)-BAL). See also Baltic Opening, German Openings (KW).
BARREN ZONE (1) [MB:Jun80]
A line of provinces which lack supply centres and approximately divide the board into east and west: Pie-Tyr-Boh-Sil-Pru-Lvn. In games which begin with separate eastern and western wars, the first country or alliance to cross the Barren Zone in force is quite frequently the ultimate winner.
BASE MAP (1) [MB:Mar82]
The map of Europe that underlies the playing map that we use. AH did away with it when they purchased the game from GRI, in part to avoid paying the royalties to Hammond Co.
BAYCON (1) [TNP:87]
Highly successful convention organized by Rob Chapman in Torquay, England, in 1986.
Richard Sharp's press byline in _Dolchstoss_. Generally used for game commentary --- even one that he's a player in!
No dislodgement without entry. Thus, if two attacks of equal strength occur, neither succeeds, the attacked unit does not retreat. Example: FA(Gas) SFA(Bur)-Par, EA(Bre) SEA(Pic)-Par, GA(Par)H. [F=French, E=English, G=German]
BELGIAN GAMBIT (1) [MB/MN:Jun80/Aug95]
Richard Sharp's name for the opening F(Bre)-MID, A(Par)-Pic, A(Mar)-Bur. Unless there is a standoff in Bur, France places two units on Bel (thus passing up two SCs in Iberia) without F(Lon)-ENC. It is more systematic to call this the Burgundy Variation of the Picardy Opening.
BERCH, MARK (1) [MN:Feb92]
Entered the American Hobby in the late 1970's and became established as one of the leading thinkers on the strategy and tactics of Diplomacy. Publisher of _Diplomacy Digest_, heavily involved in hobby politics until circa 1988. His activity in the hobby steadily dwindled throughout the late 1980's, although he remained Strategy and Tactics editor of _Diplomacy World_ until Autumn 1992. One of the leading postal players in the States. See Diplomacy World Anthologies and Personalities (KW).
England: F Nth C & A Kie S A Bel-Hol; France: F Lon S F Eng-Nth; Russia: F Hol S F Den-Nth. A combination of the Chicken-and-Egg and Finessed Cut contradictions. See DW #24.
The second largest organized Archives in North America. Based primarily on material from Robert Correll and Doug Beyerlein and the Hoosier Archives "Spares".
In its revised form, winners get 60 points, with drawers getting less. SC's count for tie-breaking purposes. A small bonus is given for being top dog in a draw. Reduced victory criterion depends on which year game is curtailed (e.g. 1908:13). Full details in DD 13. See Rating Systems (KW).
BEYERLEIN, Marie. (1) [MN:Nov92]
The first female multiple winner (as Marie Cockrell) in postal diplomacy winning her first two games, in Len Lakofka's _Liaisons Dangereuses_. She placed 6th at DipCon VII (Chicago, 1974), where she played against Doug Beyerlein, and secured a five-way draw in her last game, 1975A --- a demo game in _Diplomacy World_.

The Beyerleins married on April 26th, 1975 in Chicago. Hobby members at the wedding included Walt Buchanan (best man) and Len Lakofka. Presents included a set of seven plastic mugs from Allan Calhamer and a knife from another player. Not surprisingly the wedding featured heavily in a number of contemporary press releases, including 1975A. Long since divorced. See Personalities (KW).

Doug's rating system, not based directly on game performances, but by the votes of those in the hobby as to the player's ability. See Rating Systems (KW).
Making a set of orders contingent on the opponent retreating a unit off-the-board on the theory that the particular retreat implies an upcoming NMR. Thus, one has a probe for an upcoming NMR (See Diplomacy Digest #18).
Francois Cuerrier's label for an unequal alliance in which the lesser power still has some significant options (thus, unlike a puppet) but is dominated by Big Brother, and probably will not be able to stop his victory.
Created by Charles Reinsel, it was the Hobby's first, and rated games even as they proceeded. See Rating Systems.
BIG CASINO (1) [AoS:88]
An intricate confidence trick involving elements not strictly involved with the game. Usually aimed at other players, it can extend to deceiving the GM, the Editor, perhaps the entire hobby! Impersonation, actual legal action, prostitution, statutory blackmail, etc, are all Big Casino. This is the cutting edge of the game, but can be dangerous, resulting possibly in physical retaliation, blacklisting or imprisonment.
1972K finished in a 17-17 AR draw. It was an interesting game and the EGS are worth reading. During the course of the game Germany reached 13 before later being eliminated. This is a big elimination --- but is it the biggest?

xmas was a non-EP game ran on the EFF Judge. The Austrian player was John Massman. Austria reached its peak of 17 centres in 1910 but had 4 unused builds. France, Germany and Italy were the other players left in the game at this stage and Austria was eliminated in 1919. Germany reached 11 centres in 1917, playing one short, but he was eliminated in 1920. The game finished as a F/I draw in 1920.

BIMBOS of the DEATH SUN (1) [MN:May93]
A Crime/Mystery novel written by Sharyn McCrumb (wife of North American dipzine publisher David McCrumb, also an ex-email GM), published by TSR (ISBN 0-14-011848-9). The murder takes place at a SF convention and the book pokes gentle fun at fannish SF fans, media fans, folk singers, role-players, cons... there are even some Diplomacy players and publishers amongst the cast! It isn't much of a crime novel, but it is extremely funny, especially if you have some knowledge of SF fandom and SF cons. And don't forget the Diplomacy references!
BIRSAN, Edi (1) [PB/MN+JB:1980/Sep93]
American hobbyist who first came to prominence in the late 1960's. Inventor of the Lepanto, Edi was one of the top American players throughout the 60's and 70's, winning several invitational games. Active in hobby politics for much of this period, Edi also ran a dipzine (_Arena_) in the early 1970's which was highly regarded. These days takes a back seat, subbing to only a couple of zines and playing in the occasional game.

Edi is a brilliant tactician, an even better negotiator, and extremely focused, he could play FTF, postal, or on a sinking lifecraft with complete poise and concentration. Many people would chose him as the greatest all-time player. His greatest coup was not correcting fellow player who thought 'Edi' was female. Finally had to disillusion him when asked for a date. "We have too much in common. For one thing, we're both male." See Personalities (KW).

BIRSAURON (1) [MB:Jun80]
A nickname given affectionately to Edi Birsan.
A Larry Peery publication containing the names, address and phone numbers of postal/FTF players. The 1986 edition listed 1177 names, including 77 from Canada. See also diplomacy census.
Germany, England and France, emphasizing the fact that these usually resolve themselves 2 on 1. The centre of the triangle is Belgium.
BLACK HOLE (1) [MB:Jun80]
A variant in which, at preset intervals, provinces drawn at random or in some pattern become impassable, with the unit there destroyed. Stalemate lines become even easier to construct. See Bomb variant, Variant (KW).
In 1979IC, ("The Black Hole", a local game) player Matt McKibbin accused GM Bruce Linsey of informing player Jack Masters that Bruce had gotten the phone number of player Dave Barker from Matt, and hence Dave and Matt knew each other. This information was supposedly used by Masters to the detriment of Dave and Matt. When Bruce investigated inconsistencies in Matt's story, Matt changed the story in two important respects. Bruce then treated the original story (which included charges of GM-player collusion) as deception of the GM and expelled both Dave and Matt. This touched off a bitter controversy as to the honesty of the main characters and the appropriateness of the expulsion.
BLACK JACK (1) [MB:Mar82]
Nickname for Jack Masters.
A player who drops out of a game may be barred from playing other games in the same (or even other) zines.
BLACK PRESS (1) [MB:Jun80]
Press that is labeled as coming from a province that the writer does not have, thus making it appear to come from another player. Players can avoid their press being blackened by including a joke (or real) order in their press, which other players could not predict.
BLACK SEA (1) [RS/MN:May92/Aug94]
In _The Numbers Game_ 16 (May 1992) Richard Sharp examined Turkish opening played in British postal games (1969-1992) and discoved that Turkey had entered BLA *twice* as often as Russia had in Spring 1901. ''I'm surprised because I will usually let Russia in if I'm playing Turkey, but practically never vice versa. If I'm playing Turkey I don't bother to ask, usually. Perhaps I'm doing it wrong? The approximate frequencies are: standoff 50%; Turkey gets in 23%; Russia gets in 11%; no one orders to BLA 16%''. See also Armenia.
BLIND GAME (1) [MB:Jun80]
See Hidden Movement Variants, Variant Jargon (KW).
BLITZ (1) [MB:Jun80]
A sudden all-out attack on one country, generally by two or more. The purpose is to cripple or destroy the target country in as short a time as possible, ideally 3/2 years or less. Surprise and speed are essential to avoid the blitzers' other neighbours from taking advantage of the lightly defended borders. Common targets of early game blitzes are Germany, Austria and Russia.
Richard Sharp's name for the opening F(Kie)-Den, A(Ber)-Kie, A(Mun)-Ruh which is the most popular opening of any country. It guarantees two neutrals against any offense, and gives Germany leverage in Swe and Bel, and usually will offend no-one. If no-one has moved adjacent to him, he will have great F01 flexibility, and all home centres open for builds. Sometimes called the Denmark variant. See German Openings (KW).
See Blitzkrieg Opening, Danish Variation and German Openings (KW).
F(Kie)-Hol, A(Ber)-Kie, A(Mun)-Ruh. The second most popular German opening. Compared to the Den form, this trades German influence in Scandinavia for a stronger hand in Belgium, plus a slightly stronger defensive position. Sometimes called the Holland variant. Named by Richard Sharp. This opening could also be called the Ruhr variation of the Holland Opening.
The rarely seen F(Kie)-HEL, A(Ber)-Kie and A(Mun)-Ruh. See German Openings (KW).
Nickname for Kathy Byrne.
Richard Sharp's name for any Austrian opening using F(Tri)-ADR. See Austrian Openings (KW).
(1) Richard Sharp's name for the opening: F(Tri)-ADR, A(Vie)-Tyr, A(Bud)-Tri. Known in the States as the von Metzke blitz or von Metzke opening. See Austrian Openings (KW).
Electronic szine, distributed by e-mail on a 2-week deadline, produced from 1998(?) to the end of 1999 by Dutch fan Berry Renken, a tragic casualty of the Y2K computer problem. Many games, including word games, a long-running and free-wheeling game of Nomic, intelligent commentary and dialogue from Berry and a wide range of its subbers, great contests and more made it one of the most lively and interesting zines of its time. Another tragedy was the loss of Steve Agar's archives of the zine due to a disk crash. Still sorely missed by its subbers.
It wasn't the first unprinted Diplomacy szine, but it WAS the first one that attracted Postal people who were used to seeing a certain personality style.
BNC (1) [MB:Jun80]
See Boardman Number Custodian.
BNF (1) [HR:Aug93]
Short for Big Name Fan (or Bloody Nice Fellow).
BOARDMAN, John (1) [MN:Nov92]
Produced the first ever diplomacy fanzine, _Graustark_, in May 1963. Almost 30 years, and over 600 issues, later still pubbing _Graustark_. Not content with this Boardman has also published DAGON, a 3-weekly zine distributed with APA-Q which carries reviews of sf and fantasy books, art and general gossip and ANAKERON which circulates through APA-Filk. By January 1990 he had pubbed over 1500 fanzines. A publishing giant. Conducted the first Hobby Census. See also Alias, Boardman Number, Boardman Number Custodian, Knowable, PDO Census, and Personalities.
A unique descriptor consisting of the year in which the game starts, plus one or two letters designating the game itself. Thus, 1980AB might be the 27th game of 1980. These are given to all non-variant games, regardless of whether the GM wants them or whether the game is irregular. Their use avoids confusion in labeling games and facilitates the keeping of records. Named after their inventor, John Boardman. See also Boardman Number Custodian.
Person who assigns Boardman Numbers (often giving blocks to overseas associates to assign), publishes game reports in _Everything_, publishes the list of game starts, labels irregular and local games as such, and appoints his successor.

The first Boardman Numbers were issued in _Graustark_ 11 (23rd October 1963) where John Boardman issued the numbers 1963A and 1963B. The status of current games and the final supply centre charts of completed games were periodically reported in _Graustark_ until 1967 when Charles Wells became Boardman Number Custodian. The first three Custodians reported BN news in their own zines. Rod Walker was the first to start a zine specifically for BN purposes, _Numenor_ (19 issues between October 1969 and July 1972). Conrad von Metzke started a special BNC zine, _Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Diplomacy, But Had Better Sense Than to Ask_ (*always* abbreviated _Everything_), which subsequent custodians have maintained.

The following numbers have been assigned: 1963 A-C (3) 1964 A-E (5) 1965 A-W (23) 1966 A-BP (68) 1967 A-BG (59) 1968 A-CY(103) 1969 A-CS (96) 1970 A-BU (73) 1971 A-EN (144) 1972 A-GK (196*) 1973 A-JC
(*) Conrad von Metzke states 191 games in _Everything_ 7 (March 1973).

The figures for the years 1969-1973 include numbers assigned to games in continental Europe, South Africa and the UK.

As of June 1994 the Boardman Number Block Assignments were:
North America (USA): A-AZ, HA-IZ, NA-NN, WA-WZ.
North America (Canada): CA-CZ.
United Kingdom: BA-BZ, DA-EZ, GA-GZ, JA-JZ, NO-OZ, RA-RZ.
Continental Europe (Francophone): FA-FZ.
Continental Europe (Germanophone): GA-GZ.
Contintental Europe (Italy): MA-MZ.
Scandinavia: SA-SZ.
AustralAsia: XA-XZ.
Internet: KA-LZ, PA-QZ, TA-UZ, YA-ZZ.

The full line is:
Custodian Dates Service Zine
John Boardman 10/1963--8/1967 Graustark
Charles Wells 10/67--3/68 Lonely Mountain
John Koning 3/68-10/69 sTab
Rod Walker 10/69-10/72 Numenor
Conrad von Metzke 10/72-10/74 Everything (1-18)
Doug Beyerlein 10/74-11/77 Everything (19-34)
Cal White 11/77-11/78 Everything (35-41) (*)
Dennis Agosta 11/78- Everything (42)
Bernie Agosta -2/80
Lee Kendter Sr. 2/80-6/81 Everything (43-48)
Don Ditter 6/81-6/83 Everything (49-56)
Kathy Caruso (nee Byrne) 6/83-8/84 Everything (57-61)
Bill Quinn 8/84-8/86 Everything (62-68)
Steve Heinowski 8/86-6/89 Everything (68-80)
Don Williams 6/89-3/91 Everything (81-82)
Gary Behnen 3/91-2/93 Everything (83-86)
Vince Lutterbie 2/93-6/94 Everything (87-88)
Andrew W. York 6/94-Present Everything (89+) (**)
(*) Only BNC from Canada!
(**) Everything 89 contained 8 BN's for FTF games played at Origins93.
It has become common practise for the BNC to appoint a publisher for Everything who copies the zine and distributes it, leaving the BNC to prodice the originals and keep track of BNs.

Distinct from 'Miniatures' in that military units are represented by pieces of cardboard, and movement is measured not by rulers, but by fixed delineations on the 'board' (usually hexagons, or 'hexes' as they are now called). A long history of military usage, but 'Tactics II', designed by Charles Roberts and eventually distributed by Avalon Hill was the first to be heavily sold publicly in 1959/60.
Jim Burgess' rule that having a child permanently doubles turnaround time and this increases exponentially with each additional child. Eventually, as they grow up, turnaround time begins to slowly drop. The pubber's comfort level with turnaround delays determines whether the zine folds or fades away. Also know as the Dick Rule, after Gregg Dick whose zine faded away and finally folded. [HR:Aug02] Having kids slows everything down (as most will know...)! See LIFE.
BOHAS (1) [MB:Jun80]
English opening of F(NWG) CA(Edi)-Nwy, F(NTH)-SKA. At the risk of leaving NTH open, England gains the ability to start quickly on Russia's Scandinavian holdings, beginning in the south, or for a surprise attack on Den. See English Openings (KW).
A type of variant in which a player is given a bomb which will render a select province impassable, destroy whoever is there, etc. Variations are in how long the bombing's effect's last, whether the bombed zone can be moved, how many bombs a player gets, how they can be used or countered, whether they are transferable, etc. These have been popular with the New York City crowd. See also Black Hole, Variant Jargon (KW).
Richard Sharp's name for the opening A(Con)-Bul and F(Ank)-Con. There are four named variations: A(Smy)-Arm (The Armenia variation, sometimes called Sharp's Opening or Soak's Bane), A(Smy) H (the Smyrna Variation), A(Smy)-Ank (the Ankara variation) and A(Smy)-Syr (the Syrian Variation). See Turkish Openings (KW).
Richard Sharp's name for the opening: A(Con)-Bul, A(Smy)-Con, F(Ank)H/misordered. See Turkish Openings (KW).
BOURSE (1) [MB:Jun80]
A currency speculation game which is played alongside a regular or variant dippy game. Competitors buy and sell the 7 countries' currencies, trying to gain large positions in the countries that are doing well. The dippy game's players may not be allowed to enter. First widely popularized by Don Miller.
A convoyed attack is assumed to come from the direction of the last convoying piece. Now somewhat obsolete.
A name given to a pirate version of Diplomacy sold in Brazil and based on the 1961 rulebook. It differs only in that Italy begins with F Rom, Naf is a supply centre and Helgoland borders on Berlin. As such, both F and I are strengthened, although an I-F war is more difficult to avoid. Sold in Brazil under the name 1914 O Joge da Diplomacia. See Variant (KW).
Founded in 1972 by Graham Levin, it was Britain's first dippy organization. It assigned BDC numbers to games, centralized gamestarts, provided a forum for discussion of diplomacy affairs and popularized the game. See National Games Club.
A ratings system kept by Jonathan Palfrey and printed in _Dolchstoss_. It uses Calhamer points, modified by the strength of the opposition, and something called Bayes' Theorem (from statistics, which governs computation of conditional probabilities -- HR). See Rating Systems (KW).
See International System.
This gives +1 point for every person you do better than using this criterion: Win, draw, survival (by number of units), elimination (by year) and -1 point for each person who bettered you. This score is averaged over all your games. Standbys were rated if it helped their rating. This gives S, accumulated over N games. So % Rating = 50 +50(S/6N)(1- 1/2^N). See Rating Systems (KW).
BRUX (1) [MB:Mar82]
Nickname for Bruce Linsey.
Gives 60 points for a win, with lesser amounts for draws, plus 1 point for each SC held at games end. Players must have at least 3 centres to participate in draws. Victory is 18, or 13 held in 1908. Details in DW 24. See Rating Systems (KW).
Produced _Hoosier Archives_, which evolved into _Diplomacy World_. Also held the Archives for many years. Wife (Carol Ann) formed Diplomacy Widows Association. Walt eventually gave up DW after may years' faithful service to the hobby. See Personalities (KW).
These are not supply centres and ownership of them does not count towards any supply centre totals. However, particular powers may use Build Centres as an alternative place to build new units, provided their total of supply centres allow this. Usually a Build Centre is used to allow fleets to be built on a sea coast where a power has no home supply centres. See Variant Jargon (KW).
BULGARIAN GAMBIT (1) [MB/HR:Jun80/25.4.92]
A swindle of Turkey, who is offered support into Rum (or access to Gre). However A(Ser)SRF(Rum)-Bul (or vice versa) will annihilate A(Bul) provided that Turkey did not enter BLA in S01 and cannot retreat to either Gre or Con (although having the army retreat to Con is almost as good as destroying it) --- the key is to get A(Bul) to be ordered to move in F01. See Austrian Openings (KW) and Russian Openings (KW).
A proposed rating system for DipCon which has the goals of: (1) Reward winning and taking risks to try and win, (2) Penalize the largest power in large draws for failing to play on and (3) Give credit to small survivors to keep them an incentive to keep on playing. Jim Burgess stated that a player's tournament rating should be the sum of his scores from all games played.

Game Scoring System: Modified 100 Point System (100 points for a win, 50 points for each player in a two way, 33 1/3 for each player in a three way, 25 for a four way, 20 for a five way, 16 2/3 for a six way, and 14 2/7 for a seven way (leave the 2/7 in as a mark of shame...)).

Modification 1: Subtract the difference between your supply center count and the count of the smallest member of the draw from the "100 Point System" score to get your score if you are a member of the draw.

Modification 2: Eliminated players get no points, but survivals get triple their final supply center count as their score. See Rating Systems (KW).

Jim Burgess' rating system for standby players. If a standby plays at least THREE game years before the end AND presides over a change (either up or down) in the number of supply centers controlled equalling or exceeding THREE, then said standby player receives full and complete credit for the final position of the position he or she is playing! A player who takes on "no-hope" positions is not penalized. See also Rating Systems For Standby Players and Rating Systems (KW).
A(Ber)-Kie, A(Mun)-Bur, F(Kie)-Den is Germany's 4th most common opening. Unless a standoff in Bur occurs, this bespeaks an aggressive German player almost certainly allied with England. A standoff is more ambiguous, but may be Germany's attempt to head off a France-England-Russian blitz. Named by Richard Sharp as the Burgundy variation of the Anschluss. See German Openings (KW).
Mark Berch's name for the opening A(Ber)-Kie, A(Mun)-Bur, F(Kie)-Hol; Germany's third most common opening, and a standoff in Bur may well be arranged. This is Germany's most westerly oriented opening, and its success is usually dependent on who, if anyone, has entered the English Channel. Named by Richard Sharp as the Burgundy variation of the Holland Opening. See German Openings (KW).
Richard Sharp's name for the very common F(Bre)-MID, A(Mar)-Spa, A(Par)-Bur. There may be an arranged standoff in Bur. This guards Bur, permits both Iberian centres to be taken, and still gives France some say in Bel, though if A(Par)-Bur goes, Bre is less protected. To derrive a systematic nomencalture for French openings the opening F(Bre)-MAO in conjunction with wither A(Par)-Bur *or* A(Mar)-Bur could be the stem for the Burgundy Opening. Then there would be named variations:
A(Mar) H and A(Par)-Bur (the Marseilles Variation),
A(Mar)-Pie and A(Par)-Bur (the Piedmont Variation),
A(Mar)-Gas and A(Par)-Bur (the Inverted Vineyard Variation, also known as the Inverted Vineyard Opening),
A(Mar)-Bur and A(Par)-Gas (the Vineyard Variation, also known as the Vineyard Opening),
A(Mar)-Bur and A(Par) H (the Paris Variation),
A(Mar)-Bur and A(Par)-Bre (the Brest Variation).
Note that the opening F(Bre)-MAO, A(Par)-Pic and A(Mar)-Bur is the Picardy Opening. See French Openings (KW).
BYLINE (1) [AoS:88]
A heading under which press is published. The GM and Editor will usually have ones for their own use and each country may be allocated one exclusively.
BYRNE CON (1) [MB:Mar82]
A series of gatherings of east coast Dippy players at Kathy Byrne's place. As of January 1982, there had been at least 8 of them.
BYRNE, Kathy
See CARUSO, Kathy, Personalities (KW).

The whole A-Z, in pdf format, is HERE

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