Diplomacy A-Z, Version 6.0

K & L Entries

KAMLAG (1) [MB:Jun80]
Distributors of Diplomacy in Belgium.
An informal group of British players whose members agree to honour all treaties with fellow Karmans, and not to attack each other's homelands, at a minimum. Sometimes the players agreed on draws, other times they fought it out to a win. Membership was not fixed; apparently others could join, at least during some periods of time, just by announcing their allegiance to the plan. Considerable controversy arose over its ethics, whether there was more to it than just those provisions, whether GMs ought to do something about it, and whether it might just be a variant. Chief defenders were Dave Wheeler and David Yule. Chief attackers were some major publishers, including Mick Bullock, Richard Sharp and John Piggott.
A variation on the Key in which Austria orders A Bud S A Ser-Rum in F01. Thus, the Aus attack on Russia is delayed until F01 to allow a R-T war to develop. (Alan Wells, see _Dot Happy_ #6.) See Austrian Openings (KW).
KEY, Jeff (1) [MN:Jan92]
An American publisher active in the 1960's. He devised the Key Lepanto, the Key Variant and the Key Lepanto Rule. See Personalities (KW).
KEY LEPANTO (1) [MB/RE/MN:Jun80/89-90/Sep95]
A specific variation of the Lepanto series of Italian opening moves: A(Ven)-Tri, A(Rom)-Apu, F(Nap)-ION. The intent is A(Tri)-Ser, a Key opening without the camouflage (and risk to Austria) of A(Rom)-Ven. A(Apu) is presumably heading for Tun, thus passing up one of the main values of the Key opening.

Unfortunately for agreeable Austrian players, most Italians allowed into Trieste refuse to move out in Autumn, with horrific consequences for beleaguered Austria. Consequently, despite the overwhelming popularity of the Lepanto as an opening, the Key Lepanto itself is rarely seen.

If we considered the moves A(Ven)-Tri and F(Nap)-ION to be the stem of the Key Lepanto then we have the following variations:
A(Rom)-Apu (Key Lepanto),
A(Rom) H, (Key Lepanto, Rome Variation),
A(Rom)-Nap (Key Lepanto, Naples Variation),
A(Rom)-Tus (Key Lepanto, Tuscany Variation).

Note that the A(Rom)-Ven move is known as the Stab Lepanto. Devised by American player Jeff Key. See Austrian Openings (KW) and Italian Openings (KW).

KEY OPENING (1) [MB:Jun80]
Named by Jeff Key, the inventor, of an Italian-Austrian opening with A(Ven)-Tri-Ser (usually with Austrian support to foil A(Bul)-Ser), A(Bud)-Ser-Gre (latter with support from F(Alb)). Since Italy gets his build in Ser, he can do F(ION)-AEG/EAS. This opening is particularly valuable if Turkey opens F(Ank)-Con, since the traditional Lepanto is almost certain to be foiled. If A(Bul)-Gre is believed unlikely, Austria can step up the naval pressure on Turkey with F(Alb)-ION. Italy can readily stab Austria with A(Tri)-Vie, A(Ven)-Tri, or by gaining Turkish support for A(Apu)/F(ION)-Gre, plus A(Tri)-Alb to cut support. See Austrian Openings and Italian Openings (KW).
KEY RULE [MB/MN:Jun80/Apr92]
If a unit is ordered to move and fails to do so, it is dislodged by an unsupported attack. This rule has also been introduced into other variants, most notably into the Mercator series. In fact all large variants should incorporate this rule to help unfreeze their maps and to add more freedom of movement to the game. E.g. Germany orders A(Mun)-Boh while Austria orders A(Tyr)-Mun, A(Vie)-Boh. Under standard rules, the result is that all units stand, but using the Key Rule, A(Vie) stands, A(Tyr)-Mun, A(Mun) dislodged is the result. See Key Variant and Variant Jargon (KW).
KEY VARIANT (1) [MN:Apr92]
The simple change variant that uses The Key Variant Rule. Several games of this were run in the 1960's. Designed by Jeff Key. See Key Rule and Variants (KW).
See KEY RULE, Variant Jargon (KW).
(1) A Key Word entry provide a list of all entries associated with the 'Key Word'. Key Word entrys are: Austrian Openings, Diplomacy Statistics, English Openings, French Openings, German Openings, Hobby Awards, Humour, Italian Openings, Personalities, Rating Systems, Russian Openings, Variant Jargon, Variants and Zine Names.
Popular philosophy of play which holds that there are only two honorable fates in a Diplomacy game: win or elimination.
Game of amazing popularity which takes hours to play and has a hideously badly designed gameboard (although improved when Avalon Hill took over distribution). There must be something to it.
KINGMAKER (2) [DC:Jan92]
The term used to describe a power when by his actions he tries to decide who the winner will be. Usually used in the mid-game by a country caught between the two powers that are well ahead and racing to the finish. Makes for an excellent bargaining position. Term originated at Stevens Institute of Technology.
A compromise between the Calhamer System (which gives no weight to positions) and the NGC system (which gives a great deal of weight to them) which contains some influence from the Wilman rating system. Each game has a potential 150 pts, divided as follows:
(1) 60 pts to the winner, or divided equally between participants in a draw (rounded down in a 7-way).
(2) 'Positions' awarded: 1st 14, 2nd 12, 3rd, 10, 4th 8, 5th 6, 6th 4, 7th 2. Average out for ties (participants in a draw are considered 1st equal, others determined by supply-centre count then order of elimination/dropout).
(3) Add a tiebreaker of 1 pt per supply centre held at the game-end (ignoring dropouts).
(4) Dropouts get a -15 penalty. (This incidentally means that standbys can be rated).
(5) Games in progress are rated by considering each a 'potential draw' between all surviving participants, using the latest supply centre counts for (3).
Originally printed in Zeeby 46, January 1986. See Rating Systems (KW).
The rating system used at ManorCon in 1986 for both the team tournament and the individual tournament.

Games were played to a 1912 limit in the team tournament and 1909 in the individual, with individual scores from the team tournament counting towards the individual tournament. All games were DIAS.

Winners are awarded 2 Primary Points and all participants in any draw 1 Primary Point each. The winner of the team tournament was the team with most Primary Points (ties split by Secondary Points) and the winner of the individual tournament was the player with the most Primary Points, again ties being split by Secondary Points.

Secondary Points were based on what may be thought of as strength relative to a potential win. Where n = supply centre count, 100 pts were divided between the surviving players' in the ratios given by the following f(n) = 0.5*(n**2 + n) + 4. (Non-surviving players' shares were added into the divisor although their share of the 100 pts was ignored: instead they received 0.1 pt for each year survived.)

The practical upshot of the Secondary Point formula was that each gain in SC count rendered a greater gain in Secondary Points than the step before and thus a corresponding loss if any other player should make a greater gain in SC count than you did. Thus in a 17-16-1 situation, the player with 17 --- presumably stuck on a stalemate line --- would actually lose Secondary Points were he to support the 16-player into the other's last centre. Essentially, you lose out in Secondary Points unless you take the lion's share of any victim's holdings. See Rating Systems (KW).

KLIEN, Eric (1) [EK/MN:Apr92/May92]
Discovered Diplomacy at high school when he came across a group of people playing the game, but although intrigued by the game he didn't follow his interest up. After _The General_ ran a special Diplomacy issue he was spurred into action, buying the game and entering the hobby at the same time; six months later he was publishing a zine, Protocol.

Eric's 'revolutionary' approach to running postal diplomacy -that no NMRs are allowed - arose from his view that they unbalanced the game too much and that it was better to hold the game over and get a new player than to NMR the old player.

Publisher of Electronic Protocol and Protocol. Eric was one of the winners of Avalon Hill's Diplomacy contest that was run in 1989 in _The General_. See Personalities (KW).

KNOWABLE (1) [MN:Aug94]
Before _Graustark_ there was _Knowable_. Issue 3 (March 1963) contained a little paragraph on page 15 announcing the availability of a postal Diplomacy game to be run in Graustark. This represents the start of the diplomacy hobby! See also John Boardman.
Birsan's offbeat German-Italian opening: A(Ven) SA(Pie)-Tyr, dislodging GA(Tyr), allowing it to retreat to whichever of Vie or Tri Austria leaves open. A(Pie) provides some assurance to Germany that FA(Bur) will not be tempted to go for Mun, especially if Germany announces that he will open A(Tyr)-Mun. See German Openings (KW) and Italian Openings (KW).
KONING AWARD, The (1) [FCD:Spring92]
Following the success of the Miller and Walker Awards in gaining the acceptance of the hobby, Larry Peery felt that it was time to include an award for the best player of the year. It was left open whether this was to be for postal, electronic mail, or tournament play. A person could be nominated for play in a single game, or a series of games, or for winning a tournament. Peery announced the establishment of this category in the fall of 1985, with the first nominations and voting taking place in 1986. John Koning was one of the outstanding Diplomacy players of the 1960's and early 1970's, and was also the founder of DipCon, hosting the first two such Cons at his home in Youngstown, Ohio. He also published STAB, one of the best pioneer dipzines. He passed away at a young age in 1974, so this was also a memorial award.

The full name of the award is "The John Koning Best Player Award" but this is usually just abbreviated to The Koning Award.
1986 Dan Stafford: For leading the Dragonstooth Rating System through 1985.
1987 Randolph Smyth: For a career of excellent postal play. (Randolph is one of the few people to have won a postal game with every country.)
1988 Dave McCrumb: For winning DixieCon in 1987 and being top-ranked in the Dragonstooth Rating System.
1989 Marc Peters: For winning CanCon in 1988 and finishing 3rd at DipCon in 1988.
1990 Gary Behnen: For his overall postal play in the previous year.
1991 Gary Behnen: For his overall postal play in the previous year. (Awarded prior to winning the 1991 DipCon!)
1992 Gary Behnen.
1993 Marc Peters
1994 Jim Yerkey: 1993 DixieCon Champion.
1995 - Bruce Reiff
1996 - Mike Gonsalves
1997 - Mike Gonsalves
1998 - Sara Reichert (Harry Andruschak)
1999 - Frank Easton
2000 - Mark Fassio
2001 - Simon Bouton
2002 - Brian Dennehy and Cyrille Sevin (tied)
2003 Yann Clouet
2004 Yann Clouet
See Hobby Awards (KW).

Named after John Koning, who died May 22nd 1974 from complications of diabetes. John and his zine STAB was one of the early giants of the hobby, was the third BNC and was well liked. Award is now dormant. See also the Hobby Awards (KW), Koning Award.
A rule interpretation that was made part of the standard rule book from 1971 on. The rule dates to 1966 and reads: A dislodged unit can have no effect on the province from which it was dislodged. For Ex: A Munich to Burgundy, A Berlin to Munich, A Ruhr support Munich to Burgundy vs French A Burgundy to Munich: the result is that Burgundy is dislodged and Army Berlin to Munich works.
KOVAR, David (1) [DK/MN:Sep93]
I discovered Diplomacy in September 1992 and a few weeks later the Judge code. I was pretty hooked and when Ken Lowe announced his burnout I figured I could do something about it to ensure a feed for my new addiction. I've done similar things for Empire (another network game) so this was really no big deal. I posted a few messages and Chris Davis of the EFF replied with an offer of a machine. The rest is history.

David has also set-up an anonymous ftp site for large diplomacy files (including this one!), the tap mailing list and in December 1993 became joint list-owner of the dipl-l mailing list with Nick Fitzpatrick. See Personalities (KW).

KRAKEN (1) [MB:Jun80]
Randolph Smythe's press byline in Fol Si Fie, sometimes used for game commentary or in the letter column. The name comes from a sea monster in Norse mythology.
Originally what it says, 'war game', played by Germans after the Franco-Prussian war and resulting in plan which took place in WW1. Also a very bad Avalon Hill game (now deleted, I hope) but today mainly known as 'hidden chess', where there are three boards. One has the whole position, one has only the white pieces, the other the black. Obviously requires a GM, and therefore quite suited to postal play. Hilarious FTF though.
Richard Sharp's name for any Russian opening using the order F(StP/sc)-Lvn. See also Livonian Lunacy and Russian Openings (KW).
K-35 [PB:1980]
Real name of this zine is unbelievably long, German and forgettable. Ran only one game, (GMed by Conrad von Metzke) but had reams of press.
An amalgam of five different scoring systems, which adds the points from each to give the total score. No reduced victory criterion used. Details in _DW_ 24. See Rating Systems (KW).
The original British hobbymeet which used to be held in a London pub called the Lamb (Conduit Street) on the first and third Wednesday of the month. The hobbymeet has now moved elsewhere.
The F StP/sc-Fin opening. If R anticipates both A Nwy-Fin and F Den-Swe in S02 (after a F01 standoff in Swe), F Fin can block both, but F GOB cannot. If Russia anticipates Germany building F Kie in W01, F Fin is much less threatening, making it much easier for G to move against E. See Russian Openings (KW).
LAURENCE'S LAW (1) [DLa:Jan95]
In any game of Diplomacy, a mistake has already been made. Naturally, this includes games where a player has been eliminated or games ending in a solo win as special cases. More interesting, though, is the corollary:
In any game of Diplomacy, the first mistake occurs before the Spring, 1901 moves.
My further research indicates that the first mistake may in fact be the decision to play Diplomacy! The investigation continues.... See also Dumb Mistake, Mistake and Tactical Mistake.
LEADER UNITS (1) [AP:1986]
These are usually units of a standard type (for the particular variant) but which, on the board, also physically represents the individual who is the leader of that power (eg. the Emperor, Sauron etc)/ As such, they are a cross between Personality Pieces and Special Units. If the leader unit is eliminated, so is the owning player. They are usually found in Historical or Fantasy variants. See also Pieces, Special Unit Types and VariantJargon (KW).
_Omnibus_ 4 (April 1995) contained a survey of all regular games played in Continental Europe between 1971 and 1991.

Years   number    A    E    F    G    I    R    T   Draw

1936     1      ---  ---  ---  ---    1  ---  ---   ----
1926     1      ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---    1   ----
1925     2      ---  ---    1  ---    1  ---  ---   ----
1924     1      ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---    1   ----
1922     1      ---  ---  ---    1  ---  ---  ---   ----
1921     4      ---  ---  ---  ---  ---    1    2      1
1920     1      ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---      1
1919     1      ---  ---    1  ---  ---  ---  ---      1
1918     8        1    1    1  ---    2    1  ---      2
1917     7      ---  ---    2    2  ---    1  ---      2
1916    15        1    2    2    2    2  ---    1      5
1915    10      ---    1    1  ---  ---  ---    3      5
1914    18        4    3    1    2    2  ---    3      3
1913    21      ---    4    3  ---  ---    1    3     10
1912    44        3    8    4    5    2    4    7     11
1911    55        2    6    4    6    6    6    7     18
1910    63        9    6    4   14    5    7    6     12
1909    65        5    7   11    4    7   11    5     15
1908    65        5    4    5    5    4   10    7     25
1907    47        2    1   10    3    2   13    2     14
1906    22        3    1    1    2  ---    4    3      8
1905    16      ---    1    1    1  ---    9  ---      4
1904     5      ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---      5
1903     1      ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---  ---      1
average 10.4   10.2 10.9 10.3 10.1 12.5  8.9 11.6   10.5

The longest game is "Y'a plus d'saisons", in _Vortigern_ (1983FA), which ended in 1936! See also Diplomacy Statistics (KW).

The average length of a diplomacy game. Does the length of a game depend upon the medium in which the game is played and are orphaned games longer/shorter than non-orphaned games? Concept introduced by Mark Nelson in _Everything_ 90 (October 1994). See also Dropout Number, Q Rating and Win Number.
Some stats!

GAME                          LENGTH NUMBER
NAPG Non-orphaned games*      1910.42 /pm 4.14
NAPG Orphaned games*          1910.32 /pm 2.90
COMPU Non-orphaned games*     1909.28 /pm 3.16

COMPU = Games played over Compuserve network.
NAPG = North American Postal Games
* Data from Everything 85 (May 1992) through Everything 1991 (March 1995).

LEPANTO (1) [MB/RE:Jun80/89-90]
An Italian anti-Turkey opening featuring the Spring 1901 moves F(Nap)-ION and A(Rom)-Apu, followed by F(ION) CA (Nap)-Tun in autumn, to secure a build of F(Nap). The Lepanto would then be pursued with the moves F(Nap)-ION, F(ION)-EMS and then F(EMS) CA(Tun)-Syr (or Smy), thus embodying a four season strategy directed against Turkey (Italy's traditional rival for naval supremacy in the Mediterranean). Indeed, the Lepanto takes its name from the Sixteenth Century Battle of Lepanto in which an Austro-Italian fleet defeated the Turks.

In practice, however, the Lepanto is rarely pursued beyond Autumn 1901, after which Italian players usually prefer to develop a more flexible strategy. As an answer to the Juggernaut, the Lepanto may be the best Italian opening, assuming as it does no grave threat from Austria.

Alliance with Austria is essential, with a standoff in BLA in S01 very desirable. Popularized by Edi Birsan, it is probably the best known "named" opening. See also Anti-hedgehog Lepanto, Classic Lepanto, Italian Openings (KW), Key Lepanto, Illyrian Opening, Naples Lepanto, Stab Lepanto, Tuscany Lepanto and Tyrolian Lepanto.

LEPANTO (2) [JC:Sep94]
The battle of Lepanto was not strictly fought by an Italy-Austria coalition but by a Spain-Papacy-Venice coalition, in which the main Navy was the Spanish one. Italy was not yet a nation, but a myriad of small states (as Machiavelli portrays so well).

The association of Austria to this battle was by their close relations with the Spanish monarchy, so it is not wrong to mention them. Moreover, the Spanish Admiral who lead this battle was known as Juan of Austria, half brother of the Spanish King Philip II, son of Emperor Charles I of Spain and V of Germany.

Of course the translation of this fact into the game of Diplomacy suits perfectly with an Italy-Austria alliance.

LEPRECON (1) [PB:1980]
Con run in Ireland by Der Garvey and others at Trinity College Dublin. Quite successful by all accounts. May be more to come.
LEPRECON (2) [PG:Nov93]
Con run in Oregon by Ken Corbin and John Extrom. Now mainly a meeting place for burned-out Dipsters.
"All genuine needs will be spontaneously filled." Would that this were true!
An entry that needs to be written.
A special 36 page issue of _Diplomacy Digest_ (#34-36) published in June 1980 by Mark Berch. An alphabetical collection of the hobby's terminology, including 450 openings, variants, strategic concepts, special projects, publishing and GMing jargon, etc.

Retyped by Mark Nelson (and proofread by Harold Reynolds) for distribution in this document. A mammoth production. See also "Son of LEXICON".

LIE (1) [MB:Jun80]
The telling of an untruth is one of the most overused diplomatic procedures, yet sometimes is unavoidable. The value you hope to gain from the lie must be balanced against (1) The chance of it being discovered too soon, (2) The loss of credibility (3) the possibility that the same result could be accomplished, albeit more slowly, in a more "diplomatic" manner.
LIE (2) [SS:Jan95]
I have discovered the art of deceiving diplomats. I speak the truth, and they never believe me. Conte Camillo Benso di Cavour
See Humour.
LIFE (1) [HR:Oct02]
Those regular, recurring events that are usually unavoidable and serve only to interfere with the playing of Diplomacy. Eating, sleeping, family (especially children) and work are the worst offenders. Paradoxically, work also brings in the money that is required to maintain the ability to play Diplomacy...
See Humour.
How many Diplomacy players does it take to screw in a light bulb?
John Doucette:
Seven, unless they're named Loeb, then it takes nine.
It depends on the variant of the lightbulb.
Two, but it takes them a week to negotiate it.
Only one, if you give him Hall of Fame points for it.
One can do it, but it takes years, and a one-way lightbulb is much more satisfying than a three-way one.

Timothy Ferguson:
A: It doesn't matter how many you have to change the bulb, none will trust the others to hold the chair steady.
(taken from a rec.games.diplomacy post, 26th May 1994.)
See Humour.

LIMERICKS (1) [HR:Dec92]
See also Diplomacy.AZ.
In Diplomacy to be a winner,
one must be a terrible sinner.
The teller of lies,
Grows to a frightening size,
While the virtuous only get thinner.
See Humour.
Rather than lasting indefinitely, an alliance may be set to expire when a specific target is reached (e.g. Germany is wiped out), when one or both of the partners have reached some SC level, when a certain number of game years has passed, or once the required notice has been given. All too often, though, someone decides to jump the gun.
A system devised by Nils Lindeberg and Magnus Selhammar for Swedish tournaments.
  1. Games finish in 1908 with the winner being the player with the most centers. If two or more players tie for equal first they draw.
  2. One win is always better than any number of 2-way draws, one 2-way is always better than any number of 3-ways, and so on.
  3. Players who don't win, or are included in the draw are losers. They will get losers' point, which are the number of centers the winner has.
  4. If a player is eliminated, he will double his losers' points. If a player get eighteen centers, all others players at the board are considered eliminated, and will consequently get 36 losers' points.
  5. To rank the players with the same wins, 2-ways etc, the losers' points are used.

To encourage play from all participants, are the losers points divided by the number of games minus one half, that is:

Losers'Points(total) = Losers'Points(sum) / (NoGames-0.5)

This rule is included to allow players to play in as few or as many games as they want. See Rating Systems (KW).

LINSEY, BRUCE (1) [BL:Feb07]
Prominent hobby publisher and GM in the 1980s. Published the zine The Voice of Doom, the novice packet Supernova, the publisher's handbook Once Upon a Deadline, the Runestone Poll publication The Cream Shall Rise!, the fake Diplomacy World #40, and a number of other zines and fakes. Won the Walker Award for literary excellence in 1985 and the Miller Award for hobby service in 1987. His zine won the Zine Poll in 1985, and Bruce himself won the GM Poll in 1992. Known for his publications, for his comprehensive and strictly-enforced houserules, for being controversial at times (he was deeply involved in the Great Feud), and for always publishing on time.

(In response to a question on how he won the GM award in 1992 after VoD folded in 1985): After I folded VD in 1984, I finished out the Dip games in Echo of Doom, which I ran for a few months as a subzine to Gary Coughlan's Europa Express. Once those ended, I didn't run Dip games any more. What I did do was start TRAX, a zine for the play of postal Empire Builder, which I ran for two or three years, and then White House Mania, in which I ran Campaign Trail by mail. At its height, WHM had nine games going, with six players in each. Meanwhile, after 1989 I turned over the Runestone Poll to Eric Brosius, who ran it for about three years. Eric allowed people to vote for zines and GMs for games other than Diplomacy, which is how I managed to stay on the list for that long.

LITHO (1) [TNP:87]
Offset litho reproduction--nowadays the most common form of zine production, relying on a professional printer. Expensive.
Deceptions on a limited scale. Little Casino differs from Big Casino in that the former only involves factors directly related to the game. Breaking promises, violating non-aggression pacts, and sending an ally's letters to their enemies are all Little Casino.
Operating in the early 80's, this was mostly lawyers and law students with a few doctors and med students. GMed by John Marks.
Russia's F StP(sc)-Lvn opening. If R wishes to distract G away from F Den-Swe in F01 with a threat to the Baltic, Lvn is a better place to make the threat, since it has no other good place to go. See DW 27. A.k.a. Kronstadt Opening. See Russian Openings (KW).
LIVONIAN SYSTEM (1) [MB/RE/MN:Jun80/89-90/Jan92]
A set of Russian moves based on A(Mos/War)-Livonia in Spring 1901 followed by F(GoB) CA(Lvn)-Swe in Autumn 1901. Popularized by Don Turnbull in an article on playing Russia published in "Games & Puzzles".

In the northern variation, Russia opens A(War)-Lvn and A(Mos)-Stp and then A(Stp)-Fin, giving up to three units bearing on Norway in Spring 1902 - but at the expense of serious exposure on the Southern Flank. This may be acceptable if Austria can be relied on to contain Turkey, but the lack of influence on Rumania deprives Russia of the near certainty of a build. In the more cautious southern version, therefore A(Mos) moves to Ukraine.

In Richard Sharp's rationalized system for naming Russian Openings, the Livonian system refers to any Russian opening using the moves F(Stp/sc)-Fin/GoB and A(Mos)-Lvn. There are two named variations: the Galician Variation and the Silesian Variation.

At the time that Turnbull recommended this opening, the common opening move for F(Kie) was to Hol; it was unusual for Germany to move to Den. It was even more unusual for Germany to stand Russia out of Swe. Hence, Russian players expected to take Swe in Autumn 1901 as a matter of course. Hence the move to Lvn with intent to convoy to Swe is not as strange as first appears. See Russian Openings (KW).

LOCAL GAMES (1) [MB:Jun80 / MN:Mar23]
A "postal" game for persons in one area, usually a city but sometimes a state or part of a state (e.g. Southern California). These games are usually not rated (although they usually have the same appearance and deadlines of postal games). This is due in part to the fact that a player could amass quite a good rating without outsiders being able to challenge him. There is no known examples of this, and it is unlikely that the inclusion of local games would significantly alter rating lists. The other reason cited is that these are not so much postal as telephone games. The definition of a local game seems to have introduced by Conrad von Metzke in Everything 7 (1st March 1973).
A unit which cannot in any way affect an upcoming battle, e.g. a unit too far away, or one which can only support but which will surely be cut. A given plan may "lock-out" a particular unit by giving it no role -- possibly freeing it for another purpose.
LOEB, DANNY (1) [DL:Dec92]
I have played Diplomacy since grade school, but only entered the world of e-mail Diplomacy in 1988 when I distributed a series of variants allowing 8-63 people to play Diplomacy. A game (D20a) involving twenty players was attempted, and ended in a conceded victory as I graduated and left for France leaving the game in Eric Klien's hands. Around this time, Ken Lowe told me about his Diplomacy Adjudicator, and I became a major promoter of it. After much cajoling, Eric Klien allowed me to run a test game (Austerlitz) to be run on the Judge and included it in his zine Electronic Protocol. For this game, I set up my own Judge in Bordeaux (the first outside Washington), so that Ken could participate as a player. Following the success of this game and a favorable survey of the participants of other games on the JUDGE, Eric Klien opened up the way for greater collaboration between JUDGE and EP. I rewrote his house rules so that they would better apply to the JUDGE. Eventually, he and his guest publishers were overwhelmed by the many EP games run on the JUDGE, and were unable to publish them all. I proposed and became founding editor of a special chapter of the EP, Chapter Two, dedicated to such games.

While in Boston, I organized a diplomacy discussion list DIPL-L@MITVMA.BITNET and created a Hall of Fame introducing a scoring system [(winners-losers)/winners points per winners] which can be applied to most Diplomacy variants, and is designed to encourage competitive play. After a long halt, Nick Fitzpatrick took over the DIPL-L and Hall of Fame and is applying my game scoring system.

My current (1993! -- HR) duties include managing a list of Spring 1901 openings used in all standard games on the JUDGE. I am also the founder and director of the diplomacy programming project. As such I have had two papers published in scholarly journals regarding my research, and have written a diplomat interface which will allow humans and computer programs to play with each other automatically. My students have begun to implement many of my ideas regarding the DPP, and some initial prototypes have been tested.

See Personalities (KW).

An entry that would be nice to have. Maybe I'll find time to write it REAL SOON...

93-080 primary   1929 I
93-069 rupert    1928 I
215    earwig    1927 F
216    fly       1925 AFR
246    gorilla   1924 I
190    pint      1923 FR


192    luzon     Youngstown (Gunboat) 1940 A/F/In
93-035 offboard  Youngstown (Anon)    1939 C
93-128 jurassic  Anonymous            1936 E/F/I
139    hastings  Britain              1935 E/F/T
93-121 hopeless  Pure (Gunboat)       1935 A
94-065 woogie    Gunboat (none)       1934 A
93-095 Shogun    Youngstown (anon)    1932 A/C/E/I/J
124    dien      Youngstown           1930 I
182    sumatra   Yougnstown (Gunboat) 1930 A
93-041 heron     Gunboat (white)      1930 E

One of the longest PBM games has to be 1986AM in Graustark. Begun in July 1986, when it ended in September 1993 (as a 17-17 AT draw) it was in Winter 1939. End-game statements were printed in _Graustark_ 624, 25th September 1993.

The record for the most years a power survived on one-centre. In email games Austria lasted on one sc from S02 to Fall1914 in veal (EP240). During the course of the game this unit owned Vienna, Munich and Paris.

However the record belongs to Dan Shoham in the game Barney (93-059). Dan writes: "With my one unit, I almost made 20 years. I was the last to be eliminated, and have journeyed through Berlin, Munich, Marseillies, Venice, Trieste, Budapest, Serbia, and Greece. I had the chance to see (and often contribute to) the elimination of Austria, Germany, and France during my tenure.'' Dan Shoham, [shoham@edu.mit.ll]

The fourth type of mistake in Robert Rehbold's classification of mistakes. Difficult to spot and not easy to describe. See also dumb mistake, short term strategic mistake and tactical mistake.
LOOP (1) [MB:Jun80]
A rare tactical device for when you wish to move from A to B but anticipate that the enemy will move from B to A with equal or greater force. The solution is to convoy around the attack. Thus F(BLA) CA(Con)-Bul in the face of F(AEG)SA(Bul)-Con. The drawbacks are (1) You must be willing to accept his occupation of Con on that move, (2) Since F(BLA) is convoying, you are moving with less than full strength, and A(Gre)-Bul may foil you -- but not foil A(Bul)-Con.
The greatest fantasy book of all time. References to Gandalf, Sauron, Bilbo Baggins etc may be less frequent than they were, but are frequent enough to make reading the book compulsory. If you don't like it the first time, read it again.
LOWE, Ken [KL:Aug 93]
I was introduced to Diplomacy in 1986 when a coworker and some students set up an email game. The game played for two or three game-years over a period of a few weeks and then disolved when a couple of the students disappeared for summer vacation. I found it difficult to gather 6 other people together so I only played one FTF game a few months after that. General campus support for academic Unix was dropped into my lap in the summer of 1987. I needed something to familiarlize myself with the system and I could never find that 8th person to act as an adjudicator so writing a Diplomacy adjudicator was my "learn Unix" project. It started out adjudicating a single game among a few coworkers in November of 1987. I added multiple game support when the students who started the email game the year before learned about it and soon word leaked out to the rest of the Internet. Diplomacy has been my life from then until November 1992, when a case of minor burnout caused me to want to pursue other interests. I'm now letting the server wind down until the current games conclude. [NOTE: Many hundreds of e-mail Diplomacy players owe Ken a lot of thanks for all the effort he has put into the hobby!--HR] See Personalities (KW).

The whole A-Z, in pdf format, is HERE

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